Part 1, 2, 3

Research

WORD RESEARCH - CARRY, SHINTOISM, BREATH

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WORD RESEARCH - CARRY, SHINTOISM, BREATH

To begin the project I started to explore the three words through a format of a spider diagram and branched out ideas which came up to my head. Through this I was able to expand and link possible themes which i could use in the future.

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RESEARCH - SHINTOISM

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RESEARCH - SHINTOISM

From book: JAPAN - A LIVING PORTRAIT, revised edition by Mike Mansfield

I chose this book specifically as it looked at the different ways the Japanese valued their culture through peace and serenity - a crucial factor to Shintoism. The book sections into 4 sections which explores into the nature, prosperity, traditional arts and contemporary arts of Japan. 

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RESEARCH - SHINTOISM

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RESEARCH - SHINTOISM

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RESEARCH - SHINTOISM

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RESEARCH - SHINTOISM

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ARTIST RESEARCH - HUSSEIN CHALAYAN

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ARTIST RESEARCH - HUSSEIN CHALAYAN

Edited by Robert Violette, Contribution by Judith Clark, Susannah Frankel, Emily King and Sarah Mower

  • Pub Date: September 6, 2011
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Category: Design - Fashion & Accessories
  • Publisher: Rizzoli
  • Trim Size: 9-1/2 x 12
  • US Price: $85.00
  • CAN Price: $99.00
  • ISBN: 978-0-8478-3386-3

About the book: The book is written about Hussein Chalayan, known to be one of the most innovative, experimental and conceptual fashion designers working today. Known worldwide, Hussein Chalayan is well known for his creative ways with materials as well incorporating integration of new technology into his design works. Some of his best design works are known to incorporate a paper dress that can be folded into a shape of an envelope that can be airmailed, dresses that transform from armchair covers, coffee tables which divulges into a wooden skirt. His designs are known to be authentic as it is original with his style being pretty and modern. The book itself explores Hussein Chalayan's body of fashion and creative design works. This includes his installations, videos and photographs. 

 

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ARTIST RESEARCH - CRISTOBAL BALENCIAGA

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ARTIST RESEARCH - CRISTOBAL BALENCIAGA

Cristobal Balenciaga was born in 1895 in Getaria, a small fishing village in the Basque region of northern Spain. He was first introduced to the world of fashion by his mother who was a seamstress at the time being. Her clients consisted of the most fashionable and glamorous women in the village. When Balenciaga was just aged 12, he began an apprenticeship at a tailor's in the neighbouring fashionable resort of San Sebastian, during 1917 he first established his own fashion house which he named Eisa which was a shortened version of his mother's maiden name. 

I specifically chose this photograph of his envelope garment as it has a distinct shape to it. Although it may not be geometric to what I kept looking for, its aesthetics still gives a similar vibe of which geometric shapes do, the look of possible discomfort and unusual shape when draped on the body. The envelope dress was a continue of the baby doll dress which was created in the late 1950s where the theme of abstracting with the body continued with its trapezoid shape that skimmed the waist. The envelope dress came in the late 60s where the shape of the envelope dress is shown to be very dramatic sculptural form moulded from Balenciaga's favourite fabric. The fabric is stiff but lightweight made out of silk gazar. Although the garment was popular with the fashion press, only two of the garments were sold and one was returned because the client could not figure out how to go to the bathroom in it. 

 

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ARTIST RESEARCH - CRISTOBAL BALENCIAGA

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ARTIST RESEARCH - CRISTOBAL BALENCIAGA

X-ray photograph of silk taffeta evening dress by Cristóbal Balenciaga, 1955, Paris, France. X-ray by Nick Veasey, 2016. © Nick VeaseyX-ray photograph of silk taffeta evening dress by Cristóbal Balenciaga, 1955, Paris, France. X-ray by Nick Veasey, 2016. © Nick Veasey

 

What stood out as superbly impressive was the use of X-ray photography in the exhibition. Ghostly yet remarkable life size X-rays of a selection of dresses are presented next to their real life counterparts. They communicate the absolute attention to detail and the amount of work that went into each and every garment; the skeletons of the dresses are visible, showing the sophisticated manipulation of the fabric that gives them their artful form. This was a complex process undertaken by X-ray photographer Nick Veasey and is a creative endeavour that is not widely used due to its complex, expensive and hazardous process, thus providing a new and rare insight into Balenciaga’s creations, unseen before. And it is only fitting that this modern technology be used to showcase the work of the alleged Master of modernism himselfRenowned for his tailoring, Balenciaga’s training as a seamstress and his input in all aspects and stages of the designing of his clothes sets him apart. With displays of fabric swatches, sketches, fabric patterns and animations of the dresses being draped and designed, the exhibition presents Balenciaga as not only a couturier, designer and fashion icon but an artist. "It is difficult to communicate to a modern audience how much work went into these clothes, because if you buy fashion, you have no concept", Davies-Strodder says of her approach, using the insights into Balenciaga’s process, such as the X-rays, to reveal the complexities and creativity behind his couture.

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ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH - THE SHARD

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ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH - THE SHARD

As we were looking for architectural inspiration within the country, the first architectural building that came in thought was the Shard. The Shard is a 65 story skyscraper in Southwark, London that stands at 309.7m in height and is known to be the tallest building in the UK. 

Renzo Piano, the architect of the Shard, designed the Shard as a spire-like sculpture that emerges from the River Thames. He has stated that he had gained inspiration by the railway lines next to the site. The design claims the building as "a shard of glass through the heart of historic London" giving the name, the Shard. The spire-like form of the building was to be a positive touch to the London skyline, remembering the church steeples that was featured in the historical engravings of the city. Piano also presented sophisticated use of glaze which expresses the facades of angled glass panes which intends to reflect the sunlight and the sky above so that the outlook of the architectural structure will alter according to the weather and seasons. The building consists of 11,000 panes of glass, totalling a surface area of 600,000 square feet.

I felt that this research also relates to my artist research of Issey Miyake as Miyake's paper collection also revolves around geometrics and architectural shapes and structure. Both the Shard's design as well as Miyake collection delves deep and explores the idea of repetition and patterns that create a functional aesthetic and function to the final product. 

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ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH - THE BARBICAN

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ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH - THE BARBICAN

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ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH - THE BARBICAN

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Testing out triangular shapes through folding

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Connecting two paper prototypes

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On-site sampling

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BRUTALIST ARCHITECTURE - BARBICAN

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Market Dyes from Cusco, Peru

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Colorful plates - Sunday Peruvian market of Pisac

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the making of their clothes

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Peruvian Invasion

Torita de Pucara:

When the Spanish brought bulls to Peru during their conquest, these amazing animals quickly became part of indigenous Inca culture. Originally made in the area of Pucará, about 100 kilometres north of Puno, these small figures have now become recognised as a symbol of contemporary Peruvian culture.  To show their appreciation and respect for the animal that has supported their growth and development throughout history, artisans created small figurines known as the ‘Torito de Pucará’ that translates to “small bull of Pucara”.  These small animals now serve as a visual reminder of the history and power of the bull to the Incan culture. Thus, the tradition of the “Torito de Pucará” was born. Born in the hands of an artist, continuing with the tradition, these figurines are still handmade by local artisans in various areas of the southern part of Peru. Since they are made by hand out of clay, each ‘Torito’ is a unique piece of artwork that one can treasure for a lifetime.  They make a wonderful souvenir or gift to bring home to remember your visit to Peru. Not only will they remind you of your wonderful experiences in Peru, but, according to the legend, they will also bring protection for your home. These bulls are not only a pleasure for the eye, but they also provide a variety of spiritual benefits. As they are seen as a symbol of prosperity, the ‘Torito de Pucará’ can also provide protection for the owner of the home. The strong connotation of the bull coupled with its strong stance planted in the ground and its extravagant eyes facing to the sky has become a symbol for resilient and robust Peruvian culture. Now seen as a modern symbol of protection and strength, it now adorns the homes of many.  In addition to their popularity among tourists from across the globe, these small yet prized possessions are commonly gifted to bring happiness and fertility to newlyweds across Peru. 

Cusco celebration attire

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Sacred Valley of the Incas, Peru

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Pucusana’s boats

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Experimentation - experimenting my culture ; chinese lanterns

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Drawing - experimenting my culture ; chinese lanterns

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Colour Study - Green in cultures

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Colour Study - Green scaffolding in Hong Kong expressed in KNIT

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Colour Study - Green scaffolding in Hong Kong expressed in KNIT

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Colour Study - Green mark making expressing scaffolding and linear repetition

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Combination of drawing experimentation with textiles

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Abigail's Party

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  • Play was devised and directed in 1977 by MIke Leigh for stage and television
  • Revolves in suburban situation comedy of manners
  • Satire on the aspirations and tastes of the new middle class that emerged in Britain in the 1970s
  • Set in the “London side of Essex”
  • Storyline: Beverly Moss invites Angela and Tony her new neighbours who have moved into the road just two weeks ago for drinks. Susan (Sue) her neighbour was also invited whom is divorced for three years and her fifteen year old daughter Abigail is holding a party back at home. Laurence, who is Beverly’s husband, comes late from work just before the guests arrive. The scene sets of with the gathering in a stiff, insensitive, British middle-class way as the people gather til’ Beverly and Laurence start to quarrel. More drinks are served by Beverly and eventually the alcohol takes effect where Beverly flirts with Tony more and more as Laurence helplessly sits by. After a tirade about the artwork “Wings of Love”, Laurence suffers a fatal heart attack.

Corduroy

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History of 1920s mens pants: knickers, plus fours, oxford bags, and overalls with wide legs, cuffs, and a diverse palette. Business, casual and workwear.

Hong Kong Caged Homes

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Experimentation - expressing cage bars using knit

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Hong Kong Apartments

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Experimentation - Folding of Hong Kong Apartments (To intensify effect of linear, parallel lines)

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Example; inside Hong Kong apartments

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Hong Kong is well known to be known as Asia's world city, also known to be very expensive to fund. Hong Kong apartments currently stand as the most expensive mortgage fees counted by each square. Survey finds average rent for 3-bedroom, mid-range flat is an eye-watering US$10,461 as developers’ focus on micro flats hurts supply. Due to this issue, Hong Kong people find that they are restricted in terms of physical space. From here I continue my research about how people feel they are trapped physically (in their flats) as well as how this affects them mentally and being mentally trapped. 

Experimentation and Drawing

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Drawing - Hong Kong Pawn Shop Sign

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There tends to be a lot of pawn shops around the area of where caged homes are. This is known to be because those who lived in caged homes may have processions which they may trade in for money. 

Experimentation - caged homes parallel structure study

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Tetris

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To me, Hong Kong is like Tetris. This is because Hong Kong is such a densely populated area, even the apartments had to be built as though they have to fit together in a constricted cramped area. 

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For majority of the wealthiest people in Hong Kong, one of Asia's wealthiest cities, home is a mansion with an expensive view from the heights of Victoria Peak. 

For some of the poorest, like Leung Cho-yin, home is a metal cage. 67-year-old former butcher pays 1,300 Hong Kong dollars (£105) a month for one of about a dozen wire mesh cages resembling rabbit hutches crammed into a dilapidated apartment in a gritty, working-class West Kowloon neighbourhood. These cages are home to tens of thousands, where each cage is stacked on top of each other - measure 6ft by 2.5ft.

Harrods - introduction

- Green en, a British icon with a ceremonial role of welcoming guests to the Harrods store
- "Omnia omnibus ubique" in Latin meaning all things for all people everywhere
- Iconic - seasonal Christmas departments and food halls 
- Begun in a single room employing two assistants and a messenger boy 
- Retail operation run by medicines, perfumes, stationery, fruits and vegetables 
- Rapid expansion: required the adjoining buildings, employed one hundred people by 1880

 

Old Harrods

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Brompton Road & Harrods Old London

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Front, side and back view of the uniform of green men

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1909 - livery was green hence became the famous green man 
Green-: colour of nature, symbolises GROWTH HARMONY FRESHNESS and FERTILITY
emotional corresponds --> safety 
dark green is commonly associated with wealth and money --> represents Harrod's success as a monetary value 

British Icon: with a ceremonial role of welcoming guests to the Harrods store 
Grocery store --> department store: this was when the green men, a uniformed doorman first appeared outside to welcome customers. 
- there was a decrease of green men as they also had to take parts in the first world war. leaving a more shortage hence having women, green women at this time period. It was from 1915-1918 when the place was filled for the first and only time by female commissionaires. 

Green Women 1915

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Green women only came into the scene when there was a shortage in men as they were sent to fight for the first World War. The decrease in men then created jobs for women and hence why there were Green Women at Harrods. However, this change did not last very long due to the end of World War one in 1918, returning the jobs of Green Men back to the men. 

1910 - FIRST Green Men

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Repetitive action and gestures

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Green Men - UNIFORM

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1Remaining the same in all cases and at all times; unchanging in form or character.

2The distinctive clothing worn by members of the same organisation or body or by children attending certain schools.

Uniform distribution

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Uniform distribution

A uniform distribution between a minimum and a maximum value is the easiest to model. This distribution model simply selects random numbers that are evenly distributed between the upper and lower bounds of the range. This means that it is no more likely that the number generated will be closer to the middle or either end of the range. The figure below shows a uniform distribution of 1000 values generated between 0 and 25. Use a uniform distribution in situations where there is a reasonably clear minimum and maximum value, but either have or expect to have a distinguishable pattern between those end points.

Body Language

the conscious and unconscious movements and postures by which attitudes and feelings are communicated --> the Harrods Green Men always have a repetitive body language they communicate with customers at the door

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Body Language - gesture 1

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Body Language - gesture 2

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Harrods Knightsbright exterior

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Iconic green

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Harrods interior - luxury

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Sustainability

the ability to be maintained at a certain rate or level.
  • avoidance of the depletion of natural resources in order to maintain an ecological balance.
     
    sustainability (from sustain and ability) is the property of biological systems to remain diverse and productive indefinitely. Long-lived and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems. In more general terms, sustainability is the endurance of systems and processes. The organising principle for sustainability is sustainable development, which includes the four interconnected domains: ecology, economics, politics and culture. Sustainability science is the study of sustainable development and environmental science.

3 main factors of sustainability

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SHAPING THE FUTURE

Example; European environmental research and innovation policy. It aims at defining and implementing a transformative agenda to greening the economy and the society as a whole so to make them sustainable. Research and innovation in Europe are financially supported by the programme Horizon 2020, which is also open to participation worldwide. Encouraging good farming practices ensures farmers fully benefit from the environment and at the same time conserving it for future generations. Additionally, instigating innovative and sustainable travel and transportation solutions must play a vital role in this process.

Sustainable development goals

The Official Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted on 25 September 2015 has 92 paragraphs, with the main paragraph (51) outlining the 17 Sustainable Development Goals and its associated 169 targets. This included the following seventeen goals:

 

  1. Poverty
  2. Food
  3. Health
  4. Education
  5. Women
  6. Water
  7. Energy
  8. Economy
  9. Infrastructure
  10. Inequality 
  11. Habitation
  12. Consumption 
  13. Climate
  14. Marine-ecosystems
  15. Ecosystems
  16. Institutions
  17. Sustainability 

Freshwater and oceans

Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface. Of this, 97.5% is the salty water of the oceans and only 2.5% freshwater, most of which is locked up in the Antarctic ice sheet. The remaining freshwater is found in glaciers, lakes, rivers, wetlands, the soil, aquifers and atmosphere. Due to the water cycle, fresh water supply is continually replenished by precipitation, however there is still a limited amount necessitating management of this resource. Awareness of the global importance of preserving water for ecosystem services has only recently emerged as, during the 20th century, more than half the world's wetlands have been lost along with their valuable environmental services. Increasing urbanisation pollutes clean water supplies and much of the world still does not have access to clean, safe water. Greater emphasis is now being placed on the improved management of blue (harvestable) and green (soil water available for plant use) water, and this applies at all scales of water management.

Ocean circulation patterns have a strong influence on climate and weather and, in turn, the food supply of both humans and other organisms. Scientists have warned of the possibility, under the influence of climate change, of a sudden alteration in circulation patterns of ocean currents that could drastically alter the climate in some regions of the globe. 10% of the world's population—about 600 million people—live in low-lying areas vulnerable to sea level rise.

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Management of human consumption

The underlying driver of direct human impacts on the environment is human consumption. This impact is reduced by not only consuming less but by also making the full cycle of production, use and disposal more sustainable. Consumption of goods and services can be analysed and managed at all scales through the chain of consumption, starting with the effects of individual lifestyle choices and spending patterns, through to the resource demands of specific goods and services, the impacts of economic sectors, through national economies to the global economy. Analysis of consumption patterns relates resource use to the environmental, social and economic impacts at the scale or context under investigation. The ideas of embodied resource use (the total resources needed to produce a product or service), resource intensity, and resource productivity are important tools for understanding the impacts of consumption. Key resource categories relating to human needs are food, energy, materials and water.

In 2010, the International Resource Panel, hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), published the first global scientific assessment on the impacts of consumption and production and identified priority actions for developed and developing countries. The study found that the most critical impacts are related to ecosystem health, human health and resource depletion. From a production perspective, it found that fossil-fuel combustion processes, agriculture and fisheries have the most important impacts. Meanwhile, from a final consumption perspective, it found that household consumption related to mobility, shelter, food and energy-using products cause the majority of life-cycle impacts of consumption.

Helix of sustainability—the carbon cycle of manufacturing

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Materials, toxic substances, waste

As global population and affluence has increased, so has the use of various materials increased in volume, diversity and distance transported. Included here are raw materials, minerals, synthetic chemicals (including hazardous substances), manufactured products, food, living organisms and waste. By 2050, humanity could consume an estimated 140 billion tons of minerals, ores, fossil fuels and biomass per year (three times its current amount) unless the economic growth rate is decoupled from the rate of natural resource consumption. Developed countries' citizens consume an average of 16 tons of those four key resources per capita, ranging up to 40 or more tons per person in some developed countries with resource consumption levels far beyond what is likely sustainable.

Waste Hierarchy diagram

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plastic texture

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using plastic/foil based materials to create a variety of textures

BRUTALIST ARCHITECTURE

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RESEARCH - BREATH

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BRUTALIST ARCHITECTURE

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RESEARCH - BREATH

BREATH, BOOM - KIA CORTHRON

To look at and explore the literature side of the term 

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RESEARCH - SHINTOISM

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RESEARCH - SHINTOISM

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RESEARCH - SHINTOISM

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RESEARCH - SHINTOISM

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RESEARCH - SHINTOISM

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RESEARCH - SHINTOISM

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ARTIST RESEARCH - ISSEY MIYAKE

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ARTIST RESEARCH - ISSEY MIYAKE

These paper garments which Issey Miyake has created were followed by other models wearing the fabric versions of the same attire. It was a unique insight towards Miyake's process of design. This idea and collection recalls as the prototype experiment where the designer offers variety of the taped shapes and houndstooth and herringbone patterns that the folds of the garment created. 

I chose to research Issey Miyake as a personal artist inspiration as I found that I really liked the urbanised look and design aesthetics of the garment. I felt Miyake's research linked to what I was looking at as I felt that the architectural structure around London really brought out the geometric, modern and urban look which Miyake represented in his collection.

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ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH - THE SCALPEL

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ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH - THE SCALPEL

After looking at the Shard, I wanted to see if there was any other significant architectural structures in London which has the same qualities of my previous research focusing on the triangular geometric shape if I could. I came across the Scalpel, which is a commericial skyscraper designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox that is currently under construction in London. It is located to be in the financial area of the City of London. The name Scalpel is derived from the idea of the distinctive angular design. The architectural building, the Scalpel is due to be built completion in 2017 standing at 190m tall with 38 stories. 

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ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH - THE BARBICAN

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ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH - THE BARBICAN

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Sampling shapes with paper prototype

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Draping paper prototype onto the body - FRONT - SIDE - BACK VIEW

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BRUTALIST ARCHITECTURE

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BRUTALIST ARCHITECTURE

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What is BRUTALIST ARCHITECTURE?

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What is BRUTALIST ARCHITECTURE?

Brutalist architecture was first found from the 1960s to the mid 1970s, where it was descended form the modernist architectural movement from early 20th century. The term 'brutalist architecture' comes from French which translates to 'raw'. A British architectural critic Reyner Corbusier adapted the term into 'brutalism' to identify the emerging style. The outlook of brutalist architecture is seen to be rugged and has lack of concern to look comfortable or easy but Brutalism can be seen as response from the younger generation to the lightness, optimism and frivolity of some 1930s and 40s architecture. In one critical appraisal stated by Banham, Brutalism was postulated not as a style, but as the expression of an atmosphere among with architects of moral seriousness. The term 'Brutalism' was not always consistently used by critics and so architects usually avoided using it altogether. In recent time the term 'brutalism' has become much more popularly used to refer to buildings of the late 20th century that are large or unpopular as a synonym for 'brutal'. 

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BRUTALIST ARCHITECTURE - BARBICAN

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Peruvian Traditional Knit/Weave Hat

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Chica Culture

The art he's creating is called chicha. It's definitely fun to look at it. And it turns out to be a bit controversial as well. In March, the municipal government of Lima painted over a Tupac mural with the words "Antes sonaba" (I used to dream) and many other street murals in a historic district. The reasons are unclear; the city government reportedly says it was trying to preserve the historic district. The word itself has a murky origin. In Latin America, most people use it to refer to a popular fermented corn drink. Some say it's derived from the word for maize (chichabin Kuna, a Colombian language) or fermented water (chichiatl in Nahutl, an Aztec language). But in Peru, chicha is more than just a drink. It's a music genre that uses rock 'n' roll instruments like electric guitars and synthesisers to rock out funky beats and folk melodies. "Chicha started out as a music movement in the '60s," says Cristina Díaz-Carrera, co-curator of the 2015 Smithsonian Folklife Festival. It sprang from Cumbia, a "catchy" dance music that started out in Colombia. Peruvians added local rhythms, instruments, melodies and dance moves and renamed it "chicha." In the '90s, says Diaz-Carrera, the Ministry of Culture in Peru recognized chicha as a valid art form. Alfredo Villar, a Peruvian art historian and a participant at the festival, called chicha "the contemporary baroque." With the music came the art — first posters advertising concerts, then murals with a message.

The look of chicha is credited to Los Shapis, an '80s band, which wore brightly coloured outfits inspired by embroidery from their native Huancayo region. Other groups loved the look. And bands began working with street artists to create posters that captured their essence and style with neon-bright colours and big letters.

But not everyone in Peru approved of the music and the street art it spawned. "Chicha was actually a disparaging word in the beginning. The lower class listens to this music," Díaz-Carrera says, "the art and everything associated with it, if you're in the upper class you didn't want it on your street." These class tensions remain.

"The elite don't like chicha art, especially when it's in the streets," Villar says. "They're changing a little bit, but I don't think there's sincere change." The murals offer these communities a way to express themselves, to communicate with each other, and appreciate art outside of the museum setting, says Alexia Fawcett, community engagement manager for the Folklife Festival.

 

Peruvian styled weaves and knits are usually composed of multicolours. Usually consisting of brightly vivid colour combinations of high saturated primary colours. 

Chinchero Market

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Colour Study - Red (personal)

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Colour Study - Red

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Colour Study - Red (romance, love)

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Colour Study - Red (commercialisation)

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Experimentation - Knitting with FRAGILE tape

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Experimentation - Knitting with FRAGILE tape

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Experimentation - Knitting with YARN

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Colour Study - Red (blood)

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Experimentation - LAISEE folding

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Experimentation - LAISEE shreds

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Colour Study - Red (Chinese culture)

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The Chinchero market is one of the most attractive in Cusco. It is located in the Main Square of the district, in front of the colonial church. Most of the artisan traders are originally from Chinchero, however during early morning many people come from other surrounding towns as well to market their handicrafts. The role of women in the tissues, crafts and trade is essential. Usually traders are the real producers of handicrafts, textiles and raw materials. Sundays are the main days of the colorful market.

 

Pisac Market

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The largest number of people in Pisac is dedicated to textile production. In the fabrics the geometric iconography of this culture is represented, messages on experiences that occur in everyday life and local festivals in each town where these fabrics are made. The dyeing of the wool comes from local plants and the main colours are red, green and brown. The weavers use traditional tools such as the rakina, the waist loom, ruki, awatanca, to dye the fabrics. Among the textiles one can find ponchos, skirts, scarves, llicllas, chuspa, tapes, chumpis, watanas, purses, bags, purses, etc.

Ceviche

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Ceviche (Peruvian Food)

Ceviche is a seafood dish popular in the coastal regions of Latin America and the Caribbean. Though the origin of ceviche is hotly debated, the dish is most closely associated with Peru. It is typically made from fresh raw fish cured in citrus juices, such as lemon or lime, and spiced with aji or chilli peppers. Additional seasonings, such as chopped onions, salt, and cilantro, may also be added. Ceviche is usually accompanied by side dishes that complement its flavours, such as sweet potato, lettuce, corn, avocado or plantain. As the dish is not cooked with heat, it must be prepared and consumed fresh to minimize the risk of food poisoning.

Ceviche is a seafood dish popular in the coastal regions of Latin America and the Caribbean. Though the origin of ceviche is hotly debated, the dish is most closely associated with Peru.

Belen Market - Iquitos, Peru

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Chinchero yarn dye

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Ceviche

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Corduroy

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Colour Study - Green?

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Colour Study - Yellow experimentation

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Colour Study - Yellow experimentation 2

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Corduroy

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Drawing - Caged Homes

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Corduroy the bear

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childhood storybook

Parallel Lines - Corduroy

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How I view CORDUROY

The repetitive parallel lines of the corduroy really reminds me of the apartments, buildings and the skyline back home in Hong Kong. 

Drawing - Using ink to express HK housing

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Experimentation - Cage texture using duct tape

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Sample: Knitting with duct tape

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Sample: Knitting with custom print on fabric

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Experimentation - expressing combination of interior and exterior of caged homes using varieties of textures

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Colour/Material Experimentation of Hong Kong neon signs which contrasts the caged homes (possible use of colour to bring out certain aspects)

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Experimentation - Caged homes exterior

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Knit and Print combination expressing cage homes

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Experimentation - Paper folding pt 2 using custom print

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Trapped - definition

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Trapped - my definition

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Trapped

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I've realised that I have a common theme throughout my research from Corduroy, general Hong Kong apartments and Hong Kong caged homes, which is being trapped. The Corduroy material is a repetition of parallel lines side by side where the lines are trapped amongst each other. The general Hong Kong apartments stand together side by side in a parallel matter just like the Corduroy itself. The caged homes of Hong Kong however is both the mental and physical idea of being trapped. Where people who live in these caged homes are stuck in a situation financially as well as feeling suffocated by the physical space they have in their homes. 

Trapped - Muscles

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Trapped - Muscles

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When the body is stressed, muscles tense of muscle tension. It is almost a reflex reaction to stress - the body's way of guarding against injury and pain. With sudden onset stress, the muscles tense up all at once and then release their tension when the stress passes. Chronic stress causes the muscles in the body to be in a more or less constant state of guardedness. When muscles are taut and tense for a long time, this may trigger other reactions of the body and even promotes stress-related disorders. For example, both tension-type headache and migraine headache are associated with chronic muscle tension, or the area of the shoulders, neck and head. Millions of individuals suffer from chronic painful conditions secondary to musculoskeletal disorders. Often, but not always. There may be an injury that sets off the chronic painful state. What determines whether or not an injured person goes on to suffer from chronic pain is how they respond to the injury. Individuals who are fearful of pain and re-injury, and who cure for the injury, generally have a worse recovery than individuals who maintain a certain level of moderate, physicians - supervised activity. Muscle tensions, and eventually muscle atrophy due to dislike of the body, all promote chronic stress-related musculoskeletal conditions. Relaxation techniques have shown to effectively reduce muscle tension. Decrease the incidence of certain stress-related disorders, such as headache, and an increase sense of well being. 

Experimenting using combination of colour: red and caged home

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Land Use

Loss of biodiversity stems largely from the habitat loss and fragmentation produced by the human appropriation of land for development, forestry and agriculture as natural capital is progressively converted to man-made capital. Land use change is fundamental to the operations of the biosphere because alterations in the relative proportions of land dedicated to urbanisation, agriculture, forest, woodland, grassland and pasture have a marked effect on the global water, carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycles and this can impact negatively on both natural and human systems. At the local human scale, major sustainability benefits accrue from sustainable parks and gardens and green cities.

Since the Neolithic Revolution about 47% of the world's forests have been lost to human use. Present-day forests occupy about a quarter of the world's ice-free land with about half of these occurring in the tropics. In temperate and boreal regions forest area is gradually increasing (with the exception of Siberia), but deforestation in the tropics is of major concern.

Food is essential to life. Feeding more than seven billion human bodies takes a heavy toll on the Earth's resources. This begins with the appropriation of about 38% of the Earth's land surface and about 20% of its net primary productivity. Added to this are the resource-hungry activities of industrial agribusiness—everything from the crop need for irrigation water, synthetic fertilisers and pesticides to the resource costs of food packaging, transport (now a major part of global trade) and retail. Environmental problems associated with industrial agriculture and agribusiness are now being addressed through such movements as sustainable agriculture, organic farming and more sustainable business practices.

variety of ocean rubbish

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colour contrast between nature and the ocean waste

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denim - microscope

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plastic (straws) waste

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a vast majority of the waste in the sea are plastic straws . i will look at the effects of plastic and how I can use the material to create recycled creative use. 

squashed cans - experimentation

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aluminium cans is another waste product that can easily be recycled. I wanted to try use the aluminium cans directly to experiment what kinds of prints or dents it could leave on paper. I purposely chose to dent my cans in order to create a unique aesthetic and also having an underlying meaning where due to this product, our earth is denting/crushing and therefore creating permanent marks (the print) 

Ocean Waste -Tan Xi Zi

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Artist hopes to increase awareness about the dire situation of our oceans are in and also implore people to evaluate their personal plastic waste generation and disposal habits as plastics are non-biodegradeable and will remain on earth for a very long time. Her artwork, Plastic Oceans will appeal to the morality of the public and shed light on how the culture of convenience is unsustainable. The artwork is an installation that has been created with site-specific elements and fitted into a room with mirrors covering the four walls in order to create an infinity room of waste much akin to the current situation in the Pacific Ocean. It took a whole month for the artist to procure the recycled plastics along with cleaning, stringing and putting the project together. 

denim in vintage stores

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denim clothing is the most common piece of item in vintage/charity shops 

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